21 August 2013

The Use of Prefix Ka and Suffix An to Form Mass Nouns and Concepts in Filipino

There is a unique way in the Filipino language by which a root word is transformed into a mass noun or an abstract concept. I'm referring to the use of the prefix ka and the suffix an. The prefix ka is affixed at the beginning and the suffix an is attached to the end of the resulting word. What results is a new word form that is related to the root word literally or idiomatically.

Here are some examples of how this technique is done. First, I provide the root word and its meaning in English and then I present the resulting mass noun or concept and its meaning.

bata (child) - kabataan (the youth)
pulis (policeman) - kapulisan (police force)
mahirap (difficult) - kahirapan (poverty)
dahas (force) - karahasan (violence)
buhay (life or alive) - kabuhayan (livelihood)
patay (dead) - kamatayan (death)
sanay (used to) - kasanayan (skill or expertise)
mapalad (lucky) - kapalaran (fortune)
suot (to wear) - kasuotan (clothing)
loko (crazy) - kalokohan (foolishness)
loob (inside) - kalooban (how does one feel)
dapat (should) - karapatan (right)
manganak (to give birth) - kapanganakan (date of birth)
matibay (hard or strong) - katibayan (evidence)
matalino (intelligent) katalinuhan (intelligence)
babae (female) - kababaihan (the female species)
tapat (across) - katapatan (loyalty)
bukid (farm) - kabukiran (countryside)
kapatid (brother or sister) - kapatiran (brotherhood or sisterhood)
marunong (knows how) - karunungan (knowledge)
magtipon (come together) - katipunan (group of people)
pulo (island) - kapuluan (group of islands)
dagat (sea) - karagatan (ocean)
sangkap (ingredient) - kasangkapan (tool)
malalim (deep) - kalaliman (depth)
patag (flat) - kapatagan (plains)
sunduin (to fetch someone) - kasunduan (agreement)
pansin (attention) - kapansanan (disability)
lasing (drunk) - kalasingan (drunkenness)
dakila (great) - kadakilaan (greatness)
sarili (self) - kasarinlan (independence)
lito (confused) - kalituhan (confusion)
matanda (old) - katandaan (being old or seniors)
malungkot (lonely) - kalungkutan (loneliness)
maganda (beautiful) - kagandahan (beauty)
banal (holy) - kabanalan (holiness)
matapang (brave) - katapangan (bravery)
masama (bad) - kasamaan (evil)
pangit (ugly) - kapangitan (ugliness)
tuwid (straight) - katuwiran (reason why)
bihasa (accustomed to) - kabihasnan (culture or civilization)
kalakal (goods) - kalakalan (trade)
magpisan (to live together) - kapisanan (association)